Extracting Vital Signs

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This article explains the algorithm's function in extracting vital signs.

 

Face Detection

Face detection is performed by a deep learning model.

 

Frame Processing

A very low-light algorithm processes the camera's frames including the patient's face.

 

Signal Quality Validation

In order to make sure Binah’s SDK provides the best possible vital sign measurements, signal quality validation checks are performed during the measurement.

The validation process addresses cases in which the subject fails to follow best practices, and helps to avoid inaccurate results.

 

rPPG Technology

As a part of our algorithm, we process the rPPG vital signs by processing the image, so we know the exact frame of your heartbeats and the time you have a heart rate peak.

 

Vital Signs Extraction

By verifying these peaks it is possible to know when your heart beats, which in turn gives us information about the heart rate, oxygen saturation, and respiratory rate.

Vital Sign

Supported Measurements Types

Comment

Partial Summary Report after ~X seconds during measurement

Required measurement duration to generate valid final report (sec)

Blood Pressure

RPPG

 

(Final report only)

50

Breathing Rate

PPG,RPPG

 

35

36

Heart Rate

PPG,RPPG

 

10

20 

Mean RRi

PPG,RPPG

 

(Final report only)

50

 

Oxygen Saturation

PPG,RPPG

SpO2

35

35

Parasympathetic Nervous System Index (PNS Index)

PPG,RPPG

 

(Final report only)

50

Parasympathetic Nervous System Zone (PNS Zone)

PPG,RPPG

 

(Final report only)

50

PRQ

PPG,RPPG

 

(Final report only)

50

RMSSD

PPG,RPPG

 

(Final report only)

50

RRi

PPG,RPPG

A list of R-R intervals of the measurement is reported as part of the final report. Reported in rPPG measurements.

(Final report only)

50

SD1

PPG,RPPG

 

(Final report only)

50

SD2

PPG,RPPG

 

(Final report only)

50

SDNN

PPG,RPPG

Standard deviation of pulse rate, indicates heart rate variations

(Final report only)

50

Stress Index

PPG,RPPG

Represents the raw result of Baevsky Stress Index calculation. Reported as part of the final report in rPPG measurements.

(Final report only)

50

Stress Level

PPG,RPPG

Indicates the stress level of the subject in 5 levels (1-5). Level 5 means highest stress.

(Final report only)

50

Sympathetic Nervous System Index (SNS Index)

PPG,RPPG

 

(Final report only)

50

Sympathetic Nervous System Zone (SNS Zone)

PPG,RPPG

 

(Final report only)

50

Wellness Index

PPG,RPPG

Indicates a high-level rank of the subject wellness in range 1-10. Index 10 is healthiest.

(Final report only)

20

Wellness Level

PPG,RPPG

Idicates a high-level rank (score) of the subject in 3 levels (High, Medium, Low) based on the result of other vital signs.

(Final report only)

20

Supported Vital Signs

  • Heart Rate - The number of times a person's heart beats per minute (BPM). Generally, a lower heart rate at rest implies more efficient heart function and better cardiovascular fitness. Normal HR level is different according to age
  • Oxygen Saturation (SpO2) - indicates the amount of oxygen traveling through your body with your red blood cells. 
  • Breathing rate - is the number of breaths you take per minute.
  • Stress Level - Binah’s Stress level is based on Baevsky’s and US/European Index level measurements (Globally approved) and is calculated according to Heart Rate Variability (HRV) measurements.
  • Heart Rate Variability (HRV) - is the fluctuation in the time intervals between adjacent heartbeats. HRV indexes neuro-cardiac function and is generated by heart-brain interactions and dynamic non-linear autonomic nervous system processes.
  • SDNN - Standard deviation of pulse rate, indicates heart rate variations.
  • Blood pressure - is the pressure of blood pushing against the walls of your arteries and is measured using two numbers called systolic blood pressure (measures the pressure in your arteries when your heart beats) and diastolic blood pressure (measures the pressure in your arteries when your heart rests between beats).
  • Stress Index - is the raw Baevsky Stress Index before the conversion to the stress level.
  • RRi - is defined as the heart rate peak-to-peak interval where the Heart rate variability (HRV) is traditionally derived from.
  • PRQ - The Pulse-Respiration Quotient (PRQ) indicates the state of cardiorespiratory activity. The normal quotient range is 4 to 5. PRQ readings are affected by one’s age, sex, physiological constitution, physical activity, psychophysical and cognitive activity, body posture, environmental influences, and state of health.
  • Recovery Ability (PNS Zone) - The Recovery Ability that is also known as “rest and digest'' response refers to the body’s ability to recover, accumulate energy, and regulate bodily functions after stressful occurrences. This is part of the autonomic system that consists of two sub-systems, the sympathetic (Stress Response) system and the parasympathetic (Recovery Ability) system. Your Heart Rate Variability is reflected in the balance between these two sub-systems.

  • PNS Index - The PNS Index calculation is based on the following three parameters: Mean RRi, RMSSD, and SD1, and is used to indicate the body’s Recovery Ability zones.
  • Mean RRi - Mean RRi is the average time between the RR intervals (RRi) in milliseconds. RRi is the variation of the interval between successive heartbeats. A longer Mean RR interval indicates a lower heart rate and higher parasympathetic cardiac activation.
  • RMSSD - An important measure of the Heart Rate Variability. RMSSD is the root mean square of successive RR interval differences. It reflects the beat-to-beat variance in the heart rate. RMSSD can help identify a general level of fatigue. In addition, a higher RMSSD is linked to parasympathetic control, a sign that you are in the “rest and digest” mode. A lower RMSSD is linked to elevated sympathetic activity, an indication of a Stress Response.
  • SD1 - SD1 is one of the parameters used to calculate the PNS Index, along with RRi and RMSSD.
  • Stress Response (SNS Zone) - The Stress Response, which is also known as “fight or flight” response, refers to a physiological reaction to imminent danger that occurs when we are scared, anxious, stressed, attacked, or threatened. Essentially, it prepares our body to either deal with a threat or to run for safety. This is part of the autonomic system that consists of two sub-systems, the sympathetic (Stress Response) system and the parasympathetic (recovery ability) system. Your Heart Rate Variability is reflected in the balance between those two sub-systems.
  • SNS Index - The SNS index is calculated based on the following three parameters: Heart Rate, Baevsky’s stress index, SD2, and is used to set the stress response zone.
  • SD2 - SD2 is one of the parameters used to calculate the SNS Index, along with Heart Rate and Baevsky’s Stress Index. 
  • RRi Raw Data - The RR interval is the time between the "R" peaks of successive heartbeats, in milliseconds.

Time Frames

In order to calculate valid, accurate results for a vital sign, a specified amount of data must be collected. The amount of required data is different for each vital sign.

There is an option to receive a partial, intermediate summary report during the measurement as listed in the table below:

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